Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management


According to Henry Fayol management has 14 principles. Henry Fayol listed the 14 principles of management as follows:


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Vector Study Approach
Fayol's principles of management are some of the symbolic outputs of classical school of management. Classical school aims to come up with rule of thumps. However neoclassical management school and modern approaches asserts that every individual is different. Similarly, Vector Study also indicates every individual as a unique vector with his/her own dynamics.


Henry Fayol synthesised 14 principles for organisational design and effective administration. Fayol's 14 principles are:


1. Specialisation/Division of Labour

A principle of work allocation and specialisation in order to concentrate activities to enable specialisation of skills and understandings, more work focus and efficiency.


2. Authority with Corresponding Responsibility

If responsibilities are allocated then the post holder needs the requisite authority to carry these out including the right to require others in the area of responsibility to undertake duties.


3. Discipline

The generalisation about discipline is that discipline is essential for the smooth running of a business and without it – standards, consistency of action, adherence to rules and values – no enterprise could prosper. "in an essence – obedience, application, energy, behaviour and outward marks of respect observed in accordance with standing agreements between firms and its employees "


4. Unity of Command

The idea is that an employee should receive instructions from one superior only. This generalisation still holds – even where we are involved with team and matrix structures which involve reporting to more than one boss – or being accountable to several clients. The basic concern is that tensions and dilemmas arise where we report to two or more bosses. One boss may want X, the other Y and the subordinate is caught between the devil and the deep blue sea.


5. Unity of Direction

The unity of command idea of having one head (chief executive, cabinet consensus) with agree purposes and objectives and one plan for a group of activities) is clear.


6. Subordination of Individual Interest to the General Interest

Fayol's line was that one employee's interests or those of one group should not prevail over the organisation as a whole. This would spark a lively debate about who decides that the interests of the organisation as a whole are. Ethical dilemmas and matters of corporate risk and the behaviour of individual "chancers" are involved here. Fayol's work – assumes a shared set of values by people in the organisation – a unitarism where the reasons for organisational activities and decisions are in some way neutral and reasonable.


7. Remuneration of Staff

The general principle is that levels of compensation should be "fair" and as far as possible afford satisfaction both to the staff and the firm (in terms of its cost structures and desire for profitability/surplus).


8. Centralisation

Centralisation for Henry Fayol is essential to the organisation and a natural consequence of organising. This issue does not go away even where flatter, devolved organisations occur. Decentralisation – is frequently centralisaed-decentralisation !!! The modes of control over the actions and results of devolved organisations are still matters requiring considerable attention.


9. Scalar Chain / Line of Authority

The scalar chain of command of reporting relationships from top executive to the ordinary shop operative or driver needs to be sensible, clear and understood.


10. Order

The level of generalisation becomes difficult with this principle. Basically an organisation "should" provide an orderly place for each individual member – who needs to see how their role fits into the organisation and be confident, able to predict the organisations behaviour towards them. Thus policies, rules, instructions and actions should be understandable and understood. Orderliness implies steady evolutionary movement rather than wild, anxiety provoking, unpredictable movement.


11. Equity

Equity, fairness and a sense of justice "should"pervade the organisation – in principle and practice.


12. Stability of Tenure

Time is needed for the employee to adapt to his/her work and perform it effectively. Stability of tenure promotes loyalty to the organisation, its purposes and values.


13. Initiative

At all levels of the organisational structure, zeal, enthusiasm and energy are enabled by people having the scope for personal initiative. (Note: Tom Peters recommendations in respect of employee empowerment)


14. Esprit de Corps

Here, Fayol emphasises the need for building and maintaining of harmony among the work force , team work and sound interpersonal relationships.


In the same way that Alfred P Sloan, the executive head of General Motors reorganised the company into semi-autonomous divisions in the 1920s, corporations undergoing reorganisation still apply "classical organisation" principles – very much in line with Fayol's recommendations.